About HTML5 (HyperText Markup Language 5) generally

Nowadays, there is no people, who using the internet continually, and doesn’t know about the HTML5, but if there’s one people yet, this review  will give an insight to the world of HTML5. The name itself is a contraction of the HyperText Markup Language. The HTML5 is such a markup language which develops and displays the matter of the www, namely the World Wide Web.

Besides it’s such technology of the internet, which was designed by the Opera software. Nowadays, we can say that the fifth version of the HTML standard is available, but its creators develpoing it continually, as a June of 2012. The first version of the HTML was created in 1990, and the fourth version, the HTML4 was used since 1997, until the HTML5 appeared. One of the aims of this system, is to improve the languages of the internet, and support it with the media and other news.

Another aim is to keep the internet easily readable and understandable for everyone, and also to keep it uderstandable for other devices and technologies, such as computers, web browsers and so on. As the creators wants to the HTML5 to rise above the older systems, like HTML4, XHTML 1, DOM Level 2 HTML.

Maybe we can say that the HTML5 is a response to its immediate ancestry, the HTML4.01 and the XHTML1.1. The HTML5 was created because its developers noticed that the HTML and XHTML are very similar to each others, and there are several features, which are mixed in them. After these software produced was introduced, they noticed that there are syntax errors in many websites and web documents. The creators aim was to create such a single markup language, what can be written in HTML and XHTML also.

In this process, there was the detailed movements to encourage more interoperable implementations, then they have to extend it. Then the creators have to make it available for all of the documents in the internet, and they have to introduce it to the users, and show them how this works in the web applications. There are also several reasons, why is the HTML5 is a probable winner to use it on mobile devices, or mobile applications. This is why, because the detailes and the features of the HTML5 was created to be able to run in low –powered devices, such as smartphones and tablets. According to the research what was done in december of 2011, about 1 billion of the people will use the HTML5 in mobile devices.

In the HTML5 there is a really big innovation, because there are many new syntactical features. Beside of them, we can mention the new elements like the „video”, „audio” and „canvas” elements, and the creators integrated the new scalable vector graphics content (SVG). The previous replaces the uses of the „object” tags and the MathML, which is the mathematical formulae. Every included detail serve the aim to to make it easy to include and handle the multimedia and the graphical content on the internet, without avail oneself of their own plugins and APIs.

There are more new elements in the HTML5 version, like the „section”, „article”, „header” and „nav”, and these are created to make the documents and the subject of the internet rich. Beside this, there are more attributes what was created and showed to serve the same purpose, but there are also such elements and details, wchich was removed. There are also some elements which was changed, like the „a”, „cite”, „menu”, but there are some which are modified or standardized. The DOM, namely the document object model, and the APIs are also modified, but these are still there in the HTML5 content, such as fundamental parts. The HTML5 determines what a document should be, and becuse of this, all of the syntax errors are treated in the same way by all conforming browsers and other user agents.

History of the HTML5

In 2004, the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) was going to create the HTML5, because they wanted to create a new level of the HTMLs. This happened, when the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) worked on the improvement of the XHTML2.0, and another reason was that there were no improvements about the HTML since the creation of the HTML4, but this wasn’t updated since 2000. The W3C didn’t renewed their contract with the creators and developers of the XHTML2.0 Working Group, so they broke their connection in 2009. However, we can say that the W3C and WHATWG works together in nowadays, so they develop the HTML5 in teamwork.

In 2010, the HTML5 become a very popular mainstream media thing, however, the people and many users and developers known it before this. Before this, only the website developers know the HTML5, but since April of 2010, thanks for the media, everyone knows. In 2010, the HTML5 become so popular, because of the Apple Inc’s then CEO Steve Jobs, who writed a public letter to the users, what was about the HTML5, and its name was „Thoughts of flash” In the letter, he conlused that people doesn’t need the Adobe Flash media player anymore, because it’s not necessary to watch any media files on the internet.

He said in the letter, that in the future, the HTML5 will be really popular and everyday used tool, and this will be used in the mobile devices also. Because of this public letter, the HTML5 divided the people’s and the developer’s opinion, and they began to spar to each other. Some developer suggested to make the HTML5 better, because this provides more functionability. That’s sure, that the developers have to consider that weather they choose the HTML5, or the Flash, they have to make this way, by pay attention to the browser’s or other internet tool’s demand. So they have to realize the difference, and the pros and cons about the HTML5 and the Flash.

Buti n the november of 2011, an announcement was taken by the Adobe, where they said that they will not continue the developments of the Flash. So the Flash will be no longer available for the mobile devices, and thanks for this, the HTML5 can get this effort. In advance, we can say that the mobile devices’ tools will use the HTML5.

The HTML5’s logo was created, and presented in the january of 2011, when the W3C introduced the logo. They wanted to represent that the HTML5 is really useful, and really used in a very extensive way. We can be certain about that this „new” logo is the official logo, what the W3C presented, but this is not so valid and appropriate according to the experts, as the previous badges were. But the creator doesn’t take care about the opinion of the experts, so the logo is official from the first of april, 2011.

When the W3C presented the official logo of the HTML5, they announced it like this” general-purpose visual identity for a broad set of open web technologies, including HTML5, CSS, SVG, WOFF, and others”. It seems that no one really like the new HTML5 logo, because some people think’s about it negative. Some developers advocate the logo, for example The Web Standards Project, but some of them has really bad opinion about the logo, and they always critize it, and some of them don’t like the definition of the HTML5 at all.

After these feedbacks, the W3C responded the opinions, and changed the name of the logo. So they said the new name of the logo „represents HTML5, the cornerstone for modern Web applications”.

Standardization process

In 2004, the Mozilla Foundation and Opera Software produced a statement at a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) workshop about such technologies, what they’re developing, because the HTML5 is not compatible with the existing browsers. They also showed a draw specifications about the new Web Forms 2.0. Then the workshop finished with a vote, 8 for, 14 against, and the subject of the vote was that are they going to continue the HTML or not.

After some days passed, work based upon that position paper moved to the newly formed Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG), and after that another draft was reported, the Web Applications 1.0. Maybe we can conclude this, so from these two specifications combination, the HTML5 was created.

We can think about that the HTML5 was accepted immediately already after in the first some details were announced. So the new HTML working team of the W3C presented this in 2007. In 2008, after one year later of the appearance of the first HTML5, this working team published the First Public Working Draft of the specification. Even the final status wasn’t ready, the HTML5 implemented everything well in every internet browsers, however the whole specification not yet having reached final Recommendation status.

The original W3C timetable estimated that the HTML5 would reach the W3C Recommendation around the end months of 2010, because they rated it in 2008. So they wasn’t right, because the First Public Working Draft late eight months, and they reached the Last Call in 2011. So in february of 2011, the W3C extended their charter of its HTML Working Group, but there were clear milestones from the real HTML5.

The Last Call of the HTML5 was advanced in the middle of 2011. The Last Call was about that the W3C invited lots of communities to the W3C, to confirm the technical soundness of the specification.

Nowadays, the W3C is working on an extensive test suite to create spacious teamwork for the full spacification, which is planned to 2014. So as we can see, the current aim of the W3C is to create the final version of the specification to 2014, because this is the target date.

The criterion for the specification becoming a W3C Recommendation is “two 100% complete and fully interoperable implementations”. As we can read in an interview with TechRepublic, Ian Hickson, according to him, this will be maybe in 2022, or later, but we can be confident, because there are several parts of the spacification, what is already stable, and may be implemented in products.

Sometimes the W3C and the creators thought about change the name of the HTML5, but still they didn’t made that. Some features and a number of new elements were introduced nowadays about the HTML5, like these modifications reflects the usually usage on the modern websites. There are some semantic changes for common uses of generic block, and other inline elements. As we can know it for sure, the HTML5 syntax is no longer based on the SGML. This previous thing is totally despite of this similarity to this markup, so it’s kind of strange.

New APIs

If we would like to specify the markup, we can say that HTML5 specifies scripting application programming interfaces, what can be used JavaScript. So if someone doesn’t know, the API means application programming interfaces. Those DOM, namely document object models interfaces are spacioused and de facto features documented. So they are also some new APIs, like these:

  • for 2D drawing there is the immediate mode, the canvas element, you can see the canvas 2D API Specification1.0
  • timed media playback
  • offline web applications
  • edit the documents,
  • and drop function
  • message cross-document
  • history management
  • type and registration of the protocol handler
  • microdata
  • storage, a key-value pair storage framework, which behave similar to cookies, but they have more storage capacity, and also improved API.

You should know about that not all of these applications above in the list are in the HTML5 specifications, according to the W3C. But we can mention, that they are in the WHATWG HTML specification, all of them. There are some joint technolgies, which are not all of them in the part of the W3C HTML5 or the WHATWG HTML specification, are as follows. We can say that the W3C usually publish specifications for these apart from them:

  • geolocation,
  • Web SQL Database, this is a database, what contains the locas WQL datas, but this is no longer maintained
  • The Indexed Database API, this was the WebSimpleDB formerly, but this is an indexed hierarchical key-value store
  • File API, this application is included to handle the uploads, and manipulation of the files, directions and systems, this API is created to supply client-side-storage useability cases and not the well served by the databases.
  • File Writer, this is an API which helps you to write files from the different kinds of web applications.
  • Web audio API, this is a high level Javascript API which is perfect to prepare and synthesizing audio files in web applications.

You have to know about that the HTML5 oneself can’t provide animation on the websites, webpages. It is necassary to have either Javscript or CSS3 to animate the HTML elements on the websites. But it is also possible to appears the animations, if you have Javascript or HTML4, and don’t have HTML5.

XHTML5

The XHTML5, as we can conclude as from this name, this is a XML serialization, and based on the HTML5 of course. Those documents, which are in XML, those have to served with an XML Internet media type such as application/xhtml+xml or application/xml. This is a choose, what every user can take, and this influence the media tools, the syntax, and this determines what kind of documents type you should use.


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